martes, 12 de junio de 2012

YARUROS CULTURE

YARUROS
 In Danger of Extinction




Interculturalism, generated by pressure from the settlers and the employment of labor in cattle ranches, has slowly become the Yaruro on poor farmers who acquire the consumer society the means to be good and not feel rejected by the settler, the market offers them luxury items for women, such as earrings, pants, dresses, watches, shoes, paints the face and lips, plus food commodities that do not contain the necessary proteins such as rice, pasta, cookies , coffee, etc.., cause dietary changes that are causing malnutrition and disease.The introduction of the consumer society influences the ideological patterns of these groups to change their worldview by ethereal thinking of the dominant culture that leads to social breakdown, alcoholism, prostitution, dishonesty, selfishness and rejection of cultural values ​​by considered inferior.


LOCATION:


It covers the state of Apure in Venezuela, Arauca and Casanare in Colombia. Cunaviche north Capanaparo Riecito in the center, Cinacuro, Arm Cinacuro in the south, middle reaches of the river and Cinacuro Capanaparo; are approximately 3,859 people.


In Colombia there were only a few isolated families as farmers, the rest migrated to Venezuela because of pressure from Colombian farmers and colonization which sparked a series of mid-century persecutions. The warranties provided by the Venezuelan government, encouraged them to take refuge there.They inhabit the Llanos del Orinoco where rainfall is abundant for five months (May to September), the soils are sandy, clayey and flooded savanna is interrupted by dunes, clumps of forest and gallery forest.




GENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS: 


The Yaruros are straight brown hair, short broad nose, large mouth and small eyes. Are mixed.


CULTURE AND TRADITIONS:






Agricultural activity takes place in conucos and seeded bitter cassava and corn primarily. Fish in the rivers, hunt and gather in the gallery forests and to a lesser extent, in the savannah. In recent decades, have been forced Pume to share their ancestral lands with the Creole population because, over time, their lands have been reduced and have had to compete with the natives for the same resources. Most Yaruros still retains its rich cultural traditions.


Economic Aspect:


The Indians were Yaruros almost since the arrival of the conquistadors had intercourse with the settlers, one of the most common is to work as laborers on cattle ranches.



  • Horticulture: The basic activity of livelihoods, cultivate their gardens Pume in river valleys and conucos in the gallery forests.
  • Agriculture: the slash and burn, is incipient practice natural fruit collection.
  • Hunting and fishing: are additional activities that complement the diet. It uses the same word aetei and foods derived from both activities are called bararea. These activities are not common due to increasing livestock.
Fishing:It is a summer activity, the fish meat is considered an inferior food because it decomposes very rapidly causing health problems. For this activity are careful not to use the same pipe to prevent the death of the animals in place. In the lakes and streams, after searching a site barbasquea to collect fish. In this activity you use the spear, bow, arrow, and traps or pens that put in the pipes.

Hunting: is done respecting the juveniles. It employs the tactics of camouflage for hunting deer, herons, overcoats, waiters, for example, to hunt a deer put a hat on a piece of wood in imitation of the head and neck Jabiru and neck are painted white to hunting coats, herons and egrets are put feathers on the shoulders.

Collections: is practiced in the dry season. Those who have more contact with the settlers do not. The fruits, grains and roots the women gather and collect honey and resins the men.To remove roots coa is used, is collected moriche, macanilla, chiga to extract flour or making beverages. During the summer season are collected turtle eggs, iguana and slime.


Social Organization:

Given the relationship between parallel and cross cousins. The children of same-sex siblings are distinguished from the children of siblings of opposite sex. The mother with the same term refers to his sons and nephews, sons of his sister, brother and children are targeted differently, the man appointed to the sons and nephews, sons of brother, as his children, the children of his sister. The marriage occurs with bilateral cross-cousins, between ego and the daughter of a parallel cousin. Matrilineal cross-cousin or patrilineal. The marriage takes place within a community among young newcomers to the same generation. The boy with the consent of the girl's father asks permission for women to live with it.




Political Organization:

Villages are starting on the north side, the last house of the Shaman is a large patio for ceremonies, the village is built on the banks of the streams or ponds, homes are together, they are independent social and ceremonial units.The group consists of large nuclear families. The captain is responsible for maintaining order in the community.The shaman, or musician is responsible for healing and has a political and ideological power based on their beliefs and magic-religious power.


Religion:
Shamanism

The disease can travel twice the spirit of man or Pumetho to the divine sphere, is the fundamental principle of shamanic initiation. The Shaman has shamanic vocation "Hamborere merekode" (I've been sick).The terms for the illness and death have the same root (bass).You must have been sick to heal others when sick the spirit leaves the body and all that can be traced to the divine is who has been sick because he knows the way to return the soul to the body. 

The difference between the patient and the Shaman, is that he can rid the body at will and in their separation is involuntary patient. In the course of the disease occur revelations through dreams.All who have been ill are oriented towards shamanism. The village life revolves around the traditional therapist and recognizes that are best suited to resolve serious health problems.

Rites:
The Yaruros have shamans (who call him a musician) male and female, who are responsible for curing diseases singing and dancing.

The Tohe: It is a song or ceremony is done at the request of one or more members of the community who have a sick relative or on the initiative of the shaman. The ceremony is performed in an open space facing the East.




2 comentarios:

  1. I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. Nice blog. I will keep visiting this blog very often.

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  2. I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. Nice blog. I will keep visiting this blog very often.

    Web Services

    ResponderEliminar